Linme™ Society


New South Wales

For the Year.


Vol. XLIV.


And 212 Text-figures.







PART 1. (No. 173). {Issued 27th June, 1919).


Presidential Address delivered at the Forty-fourth Annual Meeting, March 26th, 1919, by Professor H. G. Chapman, M.D., B.S 1-31

Presentation to Mr. J.J. Fletcher, M.A., B.Sc, Re- tiring Secretary 31-35

Australian Tabanidae (Diptera) . No. iv. Bv Frank

H. Taylor, F.E.S. (Plates i.-ii. ) 41-71

The Germicidal Activity of the Eucalyptus Oils. Part i. By R. Greig-Smith, D.Sc, Macleay Bacteriolo- gist to the Society. (One Text-figure) 72-92

The External Parasites of the Dingo (Cams dingo

Blum.). By T. Steel, F.L.S 93

On the Morphology and Systematic Position of the Family Micro pterygidae (senslat.) Introduction and Part i. (The wings). By R. J. Tillyard, M.A., D.Sc, F.L.S., F.E.S., Linnean Macleay Fellow of the Society in Zoology. (Plate iii. and fourteen Text-figures. ) 95-136

Notes on Australian Coleoptera, with Descriptions of new Species. By H. J. Carter, B.A., F.E.S. (Plates iv.-v.) 137-173

Notes on Australian Marine Algae, ii. Description of Four neAv Species. By A. H. S. Lucas, M.A., B.Sc. (Plate vi. ) . .' 174-179

On a Collection of Jurassic Plants from Bexhill, near Lismore, N.S.W. By A. B. Walkom, D.Sc. (Plates vii.-viii.) 180-190

Mesozoic Insects of Queensland. No. 5. Mecoptera, the new Order Paratrichoptera, and additions to the Planipennia. By R. J. Tillyard, M.A., D.Sc, F.L.S., F.E.S., Linnean Macleay Fellow of the Society in Zoology. (Six Text-figures) .... 194-212

Hon. Treasurer's Balance Sheet 36-39

Elections and Announcements 40, 94, 191

Notes and Exhibits 40, 191-193


PART II. (No. 174). (Issued 2nd October, 1919).


Pseudobonellia, a new Echiuroid genus from the Great Barrier Reef. By Professor T. Harvey John- ston, M.A., D.Sc., C.M.Z.S., and 0. W. Tieg.s, B.Sc (Plates ix.-xi.) 213-230

A Fossil Insect- Wing belonging to the new Order Para- mecoptera, ancestral to the Trichoptera and Lepi- doptera, from the Upper Coal Measures of New- castle, N.S.W. By R.J. Tillyard, M.A., D.Sc, F.L.S., F.E.S., Linnean Macleay Fellow of the Society in Zoology. (Plates xii.-xiii., and eight Text-figures) 231-250

Revision of Australian Lepidoptera, vi. (Third in- stalment ) . By A . Jefferis Turner, M . U . , F.E.S 258-310

The Germicidal Activity of the Eucalyptus Oils. ii. The Action of the Oils in Aqueous Dilutions. By R. Greig-Smith, D.Sc, Macleay Bacteriologist to the Society . ( Seven Text-figs . ) 311-347

On Water from the roots of the Red Mallee (Eucalyp- tus oleosa) . By T. Steel, F.L.S 348-352

The identity of Poly podium spinulosum Burm. f . By E. D. Merrill, M.S. (Communicated by J. II. Maiden, I. S.O., F.R.S.) 353-354

Mesozoic Insects of Queensland. No. 0. Blattoidea. By R. J. Tillyard, M.A., D.Sc, F.L.S., F.E.S., Linnean Macleay Fellow of the Society in Zoology. (Twelve Text-figs.) 358-382

Revision of Australian Lepidoptera, vi. (Last instal- ment ) . By A . Jefferis Turn er, M . D., F.E.S. 383-413

Studies in Australian Neuroptera. No. 8. Revision of the Family Ithonidae, with Description of a new Genus and two new Species. By R. J. Tillyard, M.A., D.Sc, F.L.S., F.E.S., ' Linnean .Macleay Fellow of the Society in Zoology. (Six Text-figs.) 414-437

A new Species of Wax Scale (Cemplastcs murrayi) from New Guinea. By W. W. Froggatt, F.L.S. (Plate siv.) 439-440

2 2


PART II. (Continued.) pages On two new Trilobites from Bowning. By John Mitchell, late Principal, Technical College, New- castle, N . S . W . (Plates xv. -xvi.) 441-449

Australian Stratiomyidae (Diptera), with Description of new Species. By G. F. Hill, F.E. S. (Thir- teen Text-figs. ) 450-462

Elections and Announcements 257, 355, 438

Notes and Exhibits 257, 355-357, 438

PART III. (No. 175.) {Issued 17 th December, 1919)

An Ecological Study of the Saltmarsh Vegetation in the Port Jackson District. By A. A. Hamilton, Botanic Gardens, Sydney. (Plates xvii.-xxx.) 463-513

The Venous Oxygen Content and the Alkaline Reserve of the Blood in Pneumonic Influenza. By H. S. Halcro Wardlaw, D.Sc, Linnean Macleay Fellow of the Society in Physiology 514-524

Notes on the Australian Genus Cestrinus Er. (fam. Tenebrionidae) and some Allied Genera. By K. G. Blair, British Museum. (Communicated by H. J. Carter, B.A., F.E.S.) 529 532

The Panorpoid Complex. Part iii. The Wing- Venation. By R. J. Till yard, M.A., D.Sc, F.L.S., F.E.S., Lin- nean Macleay Fellow of the Society in Zoology. (Plates xxxi.-xxxv. and seventy-nine Text-figures.) 533-718

Announcements 525

Notes and Exhibits 525-528

PART IV. (No. 176.) (Issued 15th March, 1920.)

On a new Isopodan genus (family Oniscidae) from Lake Corangamite, Victoria. By Chas. Chilton, M.A., D.Sc, LL.D., F.L.S., C.M.Z.S., Professor of Biology, Canterbury College, New Zealand. (Twenty Text-figures.) 723-734


PART IV. (Continued.) pages

Descriptions of new species of Australian Coleoptera.

Part. xv. By Arthur M. Lea, F.E.S 735-700

Notes on the Colouration of the Young- Foliage of Eucalyptus. By J. H. Maiden, I.S.O., F.R.S., F.L.S 701-700

New Genera of Monaxonid Sponges related to the genus Clathria. By E. F. Hallhann, B.Sc, Formerly Linnean Macleay Fellow of the Society in Zoology . (Plates xxxvi.-xl.; and three Text-figures) .. .. 707-792

Peridineae of New South Wales . By G.I. Playfair .

(Plates xli.-xliii. ; and nineteen Text-figures) .. 793-818

A Revised Account of the Queensland Lecythidaceae. By C. T. White, F.L.S.. Government Botanist of Queensland. (Plate xliv.) 822-825

An interesting form of Sub-surface Drainage, By M.

Aurousseau, B.Sc. (Plate xlv.) 820-827

Tabanidae from Camden Haven District, New South Wales, with descriptions of new Species. By Eustace W. Ferguson, M.B., Ch.M., and Mar- guerite Henry, B.Sc. (Plate xlvi.) 828-849

Some additional Trilobites from New South Wales. By John Mitchell, late Principal of the Newcastle Technical College and School of Mines, N.S.W. (Plate xlvii.) 850-850

Mesozoic Insects of Queensland. No. 7. Hemiptera Homoptera; with a Note on the Phylogery of the Suborder. By R. J. Till yard, M.A., D.Sc, F.L.S., F.E.S., Linnean Macleay Fellow of the Society in Zoology. (Twenty-four Text-figures) 857-890

Notes and Exhibits 720-722, 819-821

Announcements 719, 819

Donations and Exchanges 898-912

Title-page i.

Contents ii .

Corrigenda vi.

List of New Generic and other Names vii.

List of Plates viii .

Index i.-xxxii.




Page 145, for lines 28 and 29, read

(1) Alphitobius Steph.

27. Blind (3) Typhluloma Lea.

Page 150, lines 4, 5, 8 and 11— for 11., read P.

Page 289, line 4 read Tessarotis rubra Warr., Nov. Zool., 1903,

p. 270.

Page 308, line 21 for vittaligera, read vittuligera. Page 373, line 36 for blabelloides read blattelloides. Page 377, line 11—

Page 378, text-fig. 37— for

line 23 for Blabella read Blattella. Page 381, line 31 for blabelloides read blattelloides. Page 538, for line 22, read The triehiation fails in only two

cases, viz., (a) close to the Page 588, for Text-fig. 53 read Text-fig. 58. Page 594, line 38 delete Lepidoptera.

line 41 read Lepidoptera, Diptera.

Page 023, interchange lines 26 and 27.

Page 628, line 2 for Af2, read M.±.

Page 630, interchange lines 2 and 3.

Page 635, table II., character (4) add "veinlet dcv."

Page 647, line 19 for Homoneura, read Heteroneura .

Pago 650, table III. in the headings for Erioeraniinae and Mnes-

archaeinae, read Eriocraniidae and Mnesar- chaeidae . Page 682, text-fig. 100 and p. 686, text-fig. 102 in hindwing, for

acl read be (basal cell) . Page 685, line 1 complete bracket after Euschemon. Page 701, line 2— for M, read M5.

text-fig. 110— The three forks R4+5) M1+2 and M3+4 respectively, not labelled, but lying in line witb cuf' should be labelled x, g and z in conformity with the text. Page 707, table V. character (2), in column for Lepidoptera, for C, read D, and in bottom line for 44.6, read 43.8 Page 711, line 13 for evolutions, read evolution.

Page 717, in explanation of Plate xxxi., fig. 16, for The arrows point to, read The arrow indicates the position of.

Page 797, line 22 for millo, read nullo.

Page 802, line 18 for depresso, read depressa.

Page 809, line 5 for Epivalva, read Epivalve.

Page 814, line 27 for cas, read eas.





Adastocephalum (Phaco- piuae) 446

Allocia (Porifera) 708

Arch epsy chops (Proheme- robiidae) 205

A risto psych e ( Paratrichop- tera) .' 200

Austroblattula (Mesoblattin- idae) 380

Authaemon (Lepidoptera) . . 290

Axociella (Porifera) . . . . 779

Belmontia (Belmontiidae) . . 234

Belmonttidae (Paramecop- tera) 234

Ceratucha (Lepidoptera) . . 399

( 'Mliocycla (Scytinopteri-

dae) ' 808

Coelocrossa (Lepidoptera) 274

Cydistomyia (Tabaninae) . . 47

Dendrocia (Porifera) .... 767

Encryphodes (Lepidoptera) 384

Enhypnon (Boletophaginae) 143

Epicampyla (Lepidoptera) 293

Eurymelidium (Jassidae) . . 884

Haloniscus (Oniscidae) . . 724

Heterithone (Ithonidae) . . 428

Ipsvicia (Ipsvieiidae) .... 878

Ipsviciidae (Homoptera) . . 878

Isociella (Porifera) .... 784

Isociona (Porifera) . . . . 768

Isopenectya (Porifera) . . 789

Megacietla (Porifera) . . . . 772

Mesocixius ( Seytinopteri- dae) ' 876

Mesodiphthera (Seytinop- teridae) . . 873




736 146

Neuropsyche tera) . . .

Mesoscytina ( Seytinopter- idae)

Microcilibe (Ulominae)

Microrhopaea ( Scarabaei- dae)

Micruloma (Ulominae)

Mnoniophilrts (Boletopha- ginae) 141

(Paratriehop- 203

Paracomulwm (Porifera).. 772

Paradoryx (Porifera) .... 768

Paramecopte ra ( Pan- orpoidea) 234

Paratrtchoptera .. 199

Peridelias (Lepidoptera) . . 263

Picromorpha (Lepidoptera) 277

Prosotera (Lepidoptera) . . 405

Pseudobonellia 215

Samara 1> latta ( Mesoblattin- idae) 373

Stereochorista ( Stereoehor- istidae) 190

Stereoohoristidae (Meeop- tera) 195

Symmiges (Lepidoptera) . . 394

Synzeuxis (Lepidoptera) . . 383

Tenaciella (Porifera) . . . . 773 Ttiassoblatta (Mesoblattin-

idae) 367

Triassocixius ( Scytinopter- idae) ' 878

Triassojassus (Jassidae) . . 887

Triassoscarta (Seytinopter- idae) * 874



i.-ii. Australian Tabanidae (Tab anus) .

iii. Eriocravia semi pur pur ella Steph.

iv . -v . Australian Coleoptera .

vi.- Laurencia infestans, sp.nov.

\ii.-viii. Jurassic Plants from Bexhill, N.S.W.

ix. -xi. Pseudobonellia biuterina, n.gen.et sp.

xii.-xiii. Belmontia mitchelli, n.gen.et.sp.

xiv. Ceroplastes murrayi, n.sp.

xv.-xvi. Trilobites from Bowning, N.S.W.

xvii. Saltmarsb fringed by bands of reeds. Buffalo Creek.

xviii. J uncus and Cladium. Buffalo Creek.

xix. Growtb of Salt-grass (Sporobolus virginicus) in response to reduced and extreme soil salinity.

xx. Growtb of Salicornia australis on a salt plain.

xxi. Growtb of Euppia maritima.

xxii. Seablite (Suaeda maritima).

rxiii. Salicornia and Seablite clothing salt plain. Barren salt- encrusted plain at Cook's River.

xxiv. Meadow of Cotula coronopifolia. Dense sward of Sali- cornia.

xxv. Thatch reed invaded by Scirpus littoralis and by Trig- lochin striata.

xx vi. Swamp oak and Tea-trees; Stranded mangroves.

xxvii. Wilsonia Backhousii Hook, f . ; Seablite (Suaeda mari- tima).

xxviii. Triqlochin striata Ruiz, et Pav. ; Melilotus parviflora Desf.

xxix. Selliera radicans Cav. ; Casuarina glauca Sieb.

xxx. J uncus maritimus Lam. var. australiensis ; Cladium junceum.

xxxi. Belmontia mitchelli Tillyard.

xxxii. Charagia.

xxxiii. Xyleutes and Charagia.

xxxiv. Wingia and Carpocapsa.

xxxv. Xyleutes.

xyxvi . Tenaciella canaliculata Wbitelegge .

xxxvii. Tenaciella canaliculata Wbitelegge and AxOeiella cylin- drica Ridley and Dendy.

xxxviii . 0 phlitaspongia thetidis, n . sp .

xxxix. Isociella flabellata Ridley and Dendy.

xl. Isociella flabellata Ridley and Dendy and 0 phlitaspongia thetidis, n.sp.

xli . -xliii . Peridineae of N . S . W .

xliv. Barringtonia longiracemosa, n.sp.

xiv. Trench formed by subsurface drainage, Greenmount, W.A.

xlvi. Tabanidae from Camden Haven District, N.S.W.

xl vii . Trilobites from N.S.W.




linnp:an society



WEDNESDAY, MARCH 26th, 1919.

The Forty-fourth Annual General Meeting, and the Ordinary Monthly Meeting, were held in the Linnean Hall, Ithaca Road, Elizabeth Bay, <>n Wednesday evening, March 26th, 1919.


Professor H. G. Chapman, M.D., B.S., President, in the Chair

The Minutes of the preceding Annual General Meeting fMai'ch 27th, L918) were read and confirmed.

The President delivered the Annual Address.

PRESIDENTIAL ADDR ESS. Ladies and ( I-entlemen,

The war which has been wasting the lands and wealth of Europe has come to an end. Death no longer takes a high toll among the strongest of men. The fight has been won. The arms of our kinsmen and our friends have been blessed with victory. The armies of the proud foe, ambitious for military renown, have been driven to retreat, and their leaders have been forced to sue for peace. Peace still hovers over us, waiting to descend upon the hlood-stained earth. The end of the strife raises many thoughts within us. Above all, we fee] gratitude and thankfulness, too deep to he expressed easily in words, for those who Left home, comfort and dear ones to defend our liberties overseas. They have given to us an example of unselfish patriot- ism, and we will do well to emulate the spirit which actuated

2 president's address.

those noble souls. Some will return to us no more. They lie in foreign soil, but they are remembered among us. Others have returned or will return, to help us forward in life's progress. It remains with us to see that we make full use of the awakening to national consciousness that these events have brought to us.

The statesmen of the world are engaged in determining the conditions of peace. The voices of the mass of the people are becoming articulate through Mr. Wilson. The populace is de- manding that its interests will be considered in the development of national aspirations. The burden of war falls heavily upon the proletariat, and it seems impossible to deny the justice of the request for a direct opportunity to decide questions of national policy.

With the introduction of peaceful conditions arises the neces- sity for an improvement in the standard of living of the bulk of the people in the countries that have been at war. The urgent needs' of the military situation have afforded a stimulus which has been lacking for many years. New methods have been tried in the desire to seek greater efficiency. It has been found that there are many better ways of doing things than had been formerly supposed. Better conditions of living can be instituted by making use of these improved methods.

The scientist possesses an opportunity at the present time which should not be missed. For years scientists have been amassing knowledge. They have been learning how to observe accurately different phenomena, and how to measure exactly various changes. It is this knowledge which constitutes the power of the scientist at the moment. He is conversant with the means by which a judgment can be made in the problems awaiting solution. The question arises as to how the people at large can be made aware of the utility of this knowledge. It has been said that the scientist is one of those with a mission to mankind who fails to present what he preaches in a form that ensures the attention of his fellows. A greater effort is required in the diffusion of scientific knowledge. The value of science in every walk of life should be impressed with more insistence. It does


not appear to he enough to state reasonably what science can do and await the change which will follow recognition of the truth of the statement. More publicity seems to be required to hasten the adoption of the knowledge already gained. The importance of scientific information must be promulgated by enthusiastic preaching.

For some years T have been interested in the manufacture of bread. Bread is made in New South Wales by mixing flour and water with a little salt and yeast. The mass of dough thus formed is allowed to stand for about nine hours. The dough is then divided. The loaves are moulded, shaped, and baked in the oven. It was the practice to mix the doughs in the daytime and to cany out the heavier work of dividing the dough and baking the bread at night. Conditions have changed in the last few years. The dough-maker starts work about midnight and mixes doughs during the night. The operatives start work in the morning and prepare the bread. The .State Government has built a bake-house in the Technical College. Since its opening, bread has been made in the School of Bakery three times a week in a commercial manner. The doughs are made at 9 o'clock in the morning, and the bread is taken from the oven at 6 o'clock in the afternoon. For three years there has been a continuous demonstration of this production. Not only so, but day after day bread has been made regularly in the same way and in the same time. With the assistance of the Advisory Council of Science and Industry, it has been possible to define exactly the conditions which make this regular production of bread possible. These conditions are very simple. They involve the use of scales in measuring exactly how much Hour, water, and salt are put into the dough, and the employment of a thermometer in con- trolling the temperature at which the dough ferments. Under these conditions, the number of loaves obtained from a ton of Hour remains constant. As soon as a dough has been made, a simple arithmetical calculation gives the number of loaves. Different flours will take up slightly different amounts of water, so that the yield of loaves from a ton of flour varies slightly with


the kind of flout*. The manufacture of yeast of uniform strength is also dependent on the use of scales and the thermometer. Tn addition, it is necessary to use simple bacteriological means to ensure sufficient purity in the yeast. These means of sterilisa- tion are just as simple and as easily applied as those means used in every well regulated household in the cooking and preservation of food. For months together, bread has been made with the sgme yeast. A little yeast is kept over from each brew to start the brew for the next batch of bread.

The bakehouse is always open to inspection. Any baker can see how clean, spick and span a bakehouse can be kept. There are no mysterious processes that cannot be readily copied. The time saved in making the bread as compared with that of the average bakehouse is several hours daily. Yet there are difli- culties in getting bakers to adopt the methods used. The baker looks with mistrust on the thermometer and the systematic use of scales. He claims that he knows without weighing or measur- ing how much water to add when making a dough. He is sure he can judge of temperatures without using a thermometer. He is surprised that the number of loaves from a ton of flour varies so much, and is sure that no one can always get the same number of loaves from a ton of the same flour. He remarks that he has made bread for thirty years, and that no one knows better how to make bread.

The .School of Bakery in the Technical College is intended to afford instruction in making bread. The attendance of ap- prentices is small. There is a widespread feeling that the ap- prentice will learn sufficient in the bakehouse from the baker to whom he is apprenticed, without coming to the College, it is granted that lie does not learn as much as he would by attending the Technical College, but it is asserted that he learns sufficient for his purpose. If be can make bread as well as his father or his grandfather, that is enough. Surely it will be advantageous to the whole community if the hours spent in making bread are materially lessened. This example serves to make evident what is the problem in the application of science to industry. The


scientist must deal with opposition and indifference. How can we make the apprentice see that it will he to his advantage to learn to apply scientific knowledge, and very simple science at that, to his trade? The scientist must show the value of this information If the apprentice does not respond, we must con- clude that we have not made it reasonably clear.

The wealth of Australia depends on its natural products, minerals, wool, and wheat. Other animal and vegetable products are rapidly gaining a place in the world's market. It rests with those with scientific training to add much to the value of these productions. There can be advanced many reasons why scientists should give some attention at the present time to applied science. It seems to me that members of this Society might well consider whether they cannot change the character of their scientific pursuits during the next few years. A perusal of our Proceed- ings shows that the great hulk of the investigations and observa- tions recorded fall within the domain of pure science. It is far from my intention to decrv the importance of scientific research directed towards no utilitarian end. I appreciate the zest and pleasure gained in the pursuit of the secrets of elusive Nature and the glow of satisfaction that comes when a new fact has been brought to light. We live, however, in a world with our fellows. They may have considered in the past that we were unpractical, stupid, and of little value, hut a growing opinion alleges that we hold the keys that will unlock the gates barring progress along the paths the world desires to pass. There seems to be some notion that attention to applied science is beneath the dignity of the scientist. Some say that we should be above the search for gain, since undoubtedly the pursuit of applied science leads to more re- muneration than the worship of pure science. It may be asked seriously whether there can be any more worthy aim for know- ledge than its application to circumstances which ultimately have to do with the greater happiness of our fellow citizens. The directions in which the scientist can turn in regard to applied science are so numerous at the moment that the scientist may he bewildered by the numerous avenues to which he may pass. In


entering any of these paths the scientist must retain the humble attitude of the student awaiting instruction from the contempla- tion and investigation of the objects before him, if he will be as successful in applied science as in the studies that he lias already made. The assumption of knowledge based upon theoretical principles too often lures the unwary expert into sad pitfalls. We are aware that mass is estimated by the act of weighing. We know that matter is indestructible. Theoretically the weight of a quantity of matter does not alter. Neither heat nor cold influences mass. In practice, it is soon discovered that an object weighs more or less with changes of temperature. The problem is not simple. Objects are ever suspended in the air, more or less supported by its buoyancy. It is ever thus in applied science. The scientist who would assist the progress of any industry, must devote sufficient time and trouble to master its details. Wherever possible he should go through the training which the practical man takes to master his business. The amount of scientific information is already so vast that there is much room for its application without considering new dis- covery. If we take the application of science to the pastoral and grazing industries, wool, meat, and butter represent three products of much value. The breeding of sheep and cattle has had little scientific study in this country. I noted, a few years ago, that the weight of wool removed in the fleece from the champion sheep in the Adelaide Show had increased steadily each year. Can any scientist tell us how this has been accom- plished ? Would it not be worth much in Australia if a plain account of the process of selection needed to increase the yield of wool were available? The study of inheritance as applied to domestic animals might well engage some scientist's attention. The character of the wool affects its price. Here again is a field of applied science. Pests diminish the value of wool. At the present moment some of our members are studying the blow-fly pest. The fertility of sheep affects the size of the flocks. Food supply influences the weight of the sheep and of the fleece. I need not remind you how these problems may be multiplied, and


how few persons have ascertained any information about them. A group of scientists steadily observing and experimenting could do much in obtaining exact knowledge in a few years. In the meat industry, the export of the excess of beef and mutton is largely a matter of applied science. Frozen beef is not an appetising food. Chilled beef is superior. We still await the solution of the carriage of chilled beef to Europe and the East. There is much opportunity for canning meats. The canning industry consists of a series of partially solved problems. There is abundant scope for applying science. A National Canning Laboratory would be a boon to the State. It could deal not only with canned meats, but also with canned fruits and vegeta- bles. An example for study is asparagus. It grows here in great profusion in some sandy soils. There is no canned aspara- gus made in Australia, and we pay large sums of money for Cali- fornian asparagus. 80 far we have failed to master this simple preservation. Fish abound in some of our waters. Is there not room for canning fish?

If we pass to the agricultural industries, the problems of ap- plied science are perhaps even more numerous. Insects and fungi abound in our orchards. We want more knowledge of their life-histories. Prevention is better than cure. When we know sufficient of these pests, we shall learn whence they come. It will then be easy to arrange conditions in which the pests do not flourish. The orchardist needs scientists in the orchard, not books written for his instruction. There is a wide tendency to suppose that a problem is ended when its solution has been ob- tained and published. I would refer you to what I said earlier about experimental work with yeasts and bread-making. In reality, work begins only when the solution of a problem has been reached. Application needs constant endeavour. Again. iu each locality the application is somewhat different. This is so often forgotten. The transport of fruit and vegetables needs study. The whole problem of cold transport is applied science. In this country, cold transport and the more extended use of refrigeration ought to be supplied. Those who use ice have often

8 president's address.

no accurate acquaintance with its conditions of use. .Some years ago I saw fishermen netting whiting in an inlet of the sea some one hundred and fifty miles from Sydney. They obtained ice, in boxes containing saw-dust, from Sydney. The night before the steamer arrived, they made a wonderful haul of whiting. They considered that it was worth £:}()() at market prices. 1 watched them packing the fish. They did not use a sufficient weight of ice in cool the weight of fish to a temperature at which decomposition would be prevented. They put all their fish in the boxes and distributed the ice among them. The steamer came to time. It had a fast journey to Sydney, but all the whiting was condemned. I asked the fishermen if it often happened. They naively said that they always lost their large catches, and hazarded the opinion that the fish that occurred in large shoals, did not keep so well as those in small shoals. I asked them if they considered the weight of fish and ice, and they said that no fisherman ever paid attention to it. Cannot science be applied in this instance' Would it not be possible to mark on each box the weight of fish to be placed in it with the particular quantity of ice.'

The conditions under which fruit and vegetables can be kept without decomposition, are well worthy of study by a scientist. The higher temperature, the low humidity of the central and western portions of the State, and the moist atmosphere of the coastal belt introduce factors different from those of Europe anil America. The attempts so frequently made to bring European or American practice into this country are often only partially successful.

Forestry, again, needs the labours of the scientifically trained. We have such great numbers of timbers in this State that little is known about them. A few years ago, my attention was drawn to the absence of information on these matters. The very fundamentals are lacking, though in some cases work has been done despite the failure of information. The specifications sent from Woolwich to Australia for waggons and other vehicles used for military purposes contained definite standards in regard to the amounts of moisture in different woods used in the construe-


tion. Those who had been building vehicles for years in Aus- tralia, had not been accustomed to distinguish woods by terms other than seasoned, unseasoned, well-seasoned, badly-seasoned, and so forth. The use of numerical standards surprised them, and their introduction astonished them still more when they found that no information was available on these matters in Australia. It was necessary to get the information by study of the woods. J was able to direct an acute manufacturer as to the methods of determining moisture in wood. He was able then to make his own estimations and to proceed on a research, with occasional guidance. Tn the end, he was unable to compre- hend how coachmakers had ever done without such determina- tions. A trap is wanted in Dubbo. If it is to remain a first- class vehicle without rattling and without opening cracks and joints, the wood employed must be dried so that it contains less than such and such a, percentage of moisture. If the wood has been dried below this figure, then it has undergone sufficient contraction, and will not contract more in the dry climate of Dubbo. If the trap is needed at Grafton, it will not be necessary to obtain such dry wood, since the climate of Grafton is moist. Again, the dryness of timber affects its breaking-strain. Further, one timber will shrink as it dries in one relation to the grain more than in another. Like an investigation in pure science, that investigation on moisture in timber has no end. When the ex- amination of one problem is ending, another question arises for answer.

Sufficient has been said to make you aware of the multiplicity of the opportunities for the study of applied science. If the scientist embarks on the new path of study, it will be well for him to take a companion. Much can be said in favour of the association of a practical man well versed in his business with the scientist. It seems to me thai the scientist can be of greatest use when he suggests the principles on which something is carried out, and when he applies the controls to ascertain that the desired results are being obtained. It only happens occasionally that the scientist can suggest the best method of working. Let

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me give you an example. Weevils have been devastating the wheat stored in Australia for shipment abroad. Professor Lefroy was successful in defining the conditions under which the weevil multiplies in wheat. He was able to show that when the moisture in wheat fell below a certain figure, wheat will not be destroyed by this pest. The problem of drying wheat became of practical importance. Its solution was left to Professor Lefroy. Jt seems to me that this problem is one for an engineer or a physicist. It is a practical cpiestion that may carry several solutions. If a dozen or twenty engineers had been put to work to dry wheat, it would soon have, been possible to determine who had designed the most economical and suitable mode of desiccation. It is a mistake to ask a biologist to solve an engineering problem.

My object in bringing this subject before you is to invite your attention to the importance of work on applied science in the the next few years. Our members include practically all the trained scientists in this State with knowledge of biology. If the country has to wait for others to be trained for special purposes, time will be wasted. Again, most of our members have already shown some ability to do scientific work. There have been few rewards for the scientist, and what work has been done has been carried out for the sake of Truth. Our members have thus been selected by an aptitude to do scientific work and by proved capacity to undertake research. Would it not be of benefit to our country and to our fellow-citizens if every member of this Society made an effort to do some work in applied science? The Bureau of Science and Industry will soon be established by the Commonwealth of Australia, and will be ready to assist every worker who will take up the study of an economic or industrial problem. May we not hope that every scientist in Australia will consider it his duty to do some research for the Bureau .'

The Society has, during the year, prepared for a great change. Our Secretary, who has so worthily filled the place of our muni- ficent benefactor, Sir William Macleay, has tendered his resigna- tion, which has been accepted by the Council. The Council have

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been unanimously of opinion that there was only one position to which Mr. Fletcher might be elected. They were proud to recommend his election as President, and the Society has been honoured by its recognition of this proposal. Mr. Fletcher had been associated so long with the Society that he would form one of the earliest recollections of the Society in the minds of those present. It might, therefore, be of interest to you if 1 recall some facts in the history of the Society.

The dedication of the Hall in which we are now assembled, to the Society, on 31st October, 1885, provided an opportunity for Sir William Macleay, as donor, and for Professor W. J. Stephens, as President, to give some interesting particulars about the early history of the Society, and its future prospects and aims.

Sir William Macleay said that the Society was first formed chiefly through the exertions of Captain Stackhouse, R.N., about the beginning of the year 1875, so that it had been 10 years in existence, and had, during that period, published annually a volume, varying in size from 600 to 1400 pages with many plates, containing entirely original matter contributed by mem- bers of the Society. The estimation in which those publications had been held by the world of science had been evidenced by the Large number of scientific Societies, in all parts of the globe, which had applied for an interchange of their publications with them. But during all this period in which they had been build- ing up the scientific reputation of the Society, they had been labouring under serious difficulties of several kinds, but none so great as the want of sufficient space to meet their requirements. For the first year or so of the Society's existence, it occupied an upstairs room in Hunter-street, extremely inconvenient and diffi- cult of access. It then, for about three years, held its meetings in a room in the Public Library, by the permission of the trus- tees of that institution. The next move was to very excellent and commodious apartments in the Garden Palace, which the Government of the day had most liberally placed at their dis- posal. Up till then they had no room for books or anything else, and the scientific publications sent to them from foreign

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Societies were packed away in eases, and were literally inaccessi hie. But when they found themselves in possession of the ample space allotted to them in the Garden Palace, they were at once enabled to enter upon the course of usefulness which was the original intention of the founders of the Society. They had collected a large and valuable library of works on scientific sub- jects, and had completed the first series of lectures on natural history, open to the public, when the destruction by fire of the entire building rendered them once more homeless and destitute. Tt was only right to mention that the warmest sympathy for the misfortune which then befell the Society was evinced by kindred Societies. The Royal Society of Sydney had offered them the use of their house for their meetings, and from the learned Societies of all parts of Europe they had received sets of their publications to replace those destroyed by fire. For some months after the fire, they were again accommodated at the Public Library, and then for a few months they occupied a small room in Hunter street, but in both these places the space at their dis- posal was so limited that they were precluded from making any attempt to again get together a collection of books. Subsequently they obtained possession of a convenient and central house in Phillip-street, in which the noise of the tram cars was their only serious disadvantage, and since then, that is to say, during the last two years, they had, though not overburdened with space, been enabled to invite contributions to the library, and the result, lie was glad to inform them, was that they had now a large and excellent reference library, comprising over 5000 publications on scientific subjects. The necessity, however, for more room, and less noise, had induced him to build the edifice they were assem- bled in, which he begged to present, such as it was, to the Society for the period of 89 years, the unexpired term of his original lease of the ground for 99 years.

And now, having got to this point of their history, when he hoped that all difficulties had terminated, they might look forward to a prosperous future. To return once more to the occasion which had brought them together, he might confidentlv sav that

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their Society had before it now a long career of untroubled use fulness. They had secured a home, a well-furnished library, a well-fitted laboratory, and, above all, a quiet and comfortable room for their meetings. To this he might add that the burden of generally directing the business of the Society, and of editing its publications, which, under the control of the Council, had, for some years past, chiefly fallen upon him, would, he hoped, hence- forth be borne upon worthier shoulders. Mr. J. .1. Fletcher, M.A , of Sydney University, and B.Sc, of London, was about to undertake the duties of Secretary and Director of the Institution, and it was worthy of note that he was one of the first two Aus- tralians who had taken a science degree.

The President of the Linnean Society (Professor W. .J. Stephens, M.A.) then rose, and addressing their host, said that, in the brief history of the operations of the Linnean Society of New South Wales which he had just laid before its members, and in his notice of the inconveniences and even disaster under which its work had been hitherto maintained, he observed a serious omis- sion of important facts. It was quite true that the Society was in the first instance confined to a very indifferent lodging, thai their affairs were improved by the permission of the trustees of the Free Public Library to occupy for the purposes of their meet- ings a room in that establishment, and that their possession of excellent quarters in the Garden Palace was only terminated in a fatal conflagration. Their host had forgotten, however, to state that since that misfortune he had lodged the Society at his own expense, providing for its use in the first place an office in Hunter-street, and, secondly, a commodious house in Phillip- street, in which they had been for two years exceedingly comfort- able, and which he ceased to place at their disposal only because he hail now completed the building of this spacious and admirably planned Palace of Science which Mr. Macleay had that day pre- sented to them. He had also neglected to inform them of the fact that he had himself supplied the salaries of the paid officers of the Society, that he had defrayed by far the greater portion of the cost of the Society's publications, anil that he had pur-

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chased and presented to the Society two inestimable collections of scientific books and records, one unhappily doomed to perish in flame, the other, he trusted, likely to remain safely and con- veniently arranged in the house for the continual use and