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WESTBURY LODGE,

NO R H AM ROAD, OXFORD.

July 29th, 1921.

My dear Sir D'Arcy,

I have sent you in another parcel a copy of Vol. II of my "Studies" which I. "beg that you will accept.

I am sending to every member of the Oouncil a. copy of the enclosed letter. If you still think that there should he a meeting before the October session I am quite willing, but it does not seem to me that we shall get either a good meeting or a profitable discussion, nevertheless, I am not at all against it .

With kindest regards to Lady Power and yourself in which my wife joins,

Believe me to be ,

Yours very sincerely,

STUDIES

IN THE

HISTORY AND METHOD OF SCIENCE

OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS

LONDON EDINBURGH GLASGOW NEW YORK

TORONTO MELBOURNE CAPE TOWN BOMBAY

HUMPHREY MILFORD

PUBLISHER TO THE UNIVERSITY

.a. a .

TUDIES

in TH E

sD Jal ^IdfidoT<l .(Biiuii3) muinoluqo'l moil DisaoM

r '

r l

,

.MaicuM TsaajA a via aihotdiV srij ni woW

AT THE CLAHBNDOM PRESS

?M i ! I i> 2 1

Mosaic from Populonium (Etruria). Probably 1st Cet. A.D.

1

Now in the Victoria ani|» Albert Museum.

STUDIES

IN THE

HISTORY AND METHOD OF SCIENCE

EDITED BY

CHARLES SINGER

VOL. II

OXFORD AT THE CLARENDON PRESS

1921

TO THE MEMORY OF

WILLIAM OSLER

PREFACE

The first volume of this series appeared in the autumn of 1917. The editor was unable to see it through the press owing to his absence from England on military duty. A Preface was accordingly provided by Sir William Osier, who, unhappily, has not lived to see the growing success that has attended the ideas he expressed there with so much force, and towards which he contributed life-long thought and effort.

The volume was received with an approval that far surpassed the hopes of its editor and the issue was rapidly exhausted. In the present collection an endeavour has been made to avoid some defects inevitable in the earlier volume. The undue prominence given to mediaeval studies will be found in part corrected and care has been taken to give more space to the evolution of the mathematical and exact sciences, though the balance is yet far from being fully redressed.

Among the many recent -signs of public interest in this country in the History and Philosophy of Science special note must be made of the systematic course in the subject now organized at University College, London. The work is under the general direction of Dr. A. Wolf. Professors Sir William Bragg, Flinders Petrie, W. M. Bayliss, L. N. G. Filon, J. P. Hill, F. G. Donnan, E. J. Garwood, T. L. Wren, D. Orson Wood, and the Editor of this series are taking part in it. The course at Edinburgh in the History of Medicine, initiated by Dr. J. D. Comrie, has attracted a large and annually increasing number of students. Mr. A. E. Heath, Senior Lecturer on Education at Liverpool University, is giving systematic instruction there on the History of Science, and the Editor of this series has become Lecturer in the History of Medicine at University College, London, and University Lecturer in the History of the Biological Sciences at Oxford. Great service has been rendered by Mr. F. S. Marvin, who has not only done much to popularize the

viii

PREFACE

History of Science, but has sought to integrate this important aspect of human development in the historical instruction of schools.

Considerable literary activity is also being exhibited. The English translation of Aristotle under the general editorship of Mr. W. D. Ross has continued to appear, as has also the much- needed publication of Roger Bacon's works under the editorship of Mr. A. G. Little, Mr. Robert Steele, and Dr. Withington. Sir Arthur Hort has rendered the History of Plants of Theophrastus into English, and a similar service has been done for Galen's short treatise On the Natural Faculties by Dr. A. J. Brock. A valuable work in a different department is Sir Norman Moore's monumental and learned History of St. Bartholomew's Hospital.

All historians of science look forward with lively interest to the appearance of Sir T. L. Heath's History of Greek Mathematics, Professor Dobson and Mr. Brodetsky's version of Copernicus, Mr. W. H. S. Jones's edition of Hippocrates, Professor William Wright and Mr. Foate's translation of Vesalius, and to further communications from the pen of Dr. J. K. Fotheringham, whose work peculiarly illustrates the aid rendered to modern scientific investigation by a wide and deep knowledge of ancient science. Less conspicuous but very real and useful will be the results of the tireless devotion which Dr. Withington has for many years bestowed on the vast mass of Greek scientific literature, with the object of rendering the forthcoming edition of Liddell and ScoWs Greek Lexicon more complete in what has been hitherto a some- what neglected department. It is a legitimate hope that his unique experience may now be utilized in rendering accessible to English readers the more important works of Galen.

Mrs. Singer's catalogue of early scientific MSS. in this country is now in a serviceable state and freely open to students. It is a card index with about forty thousand entries arranged by subject. The first section, Alchemy, is being printed as the opening fascicule of an international catalogue of Alchemical MSS., issued by the Union Academique Internationale under the general editorship of Professor Bidez of Ghent. The next of Mrs. Singer's sections

PREFACE

ix

to appear will probably be ' Anatomy ' and ' Aristotle ' by the Editor of this series.

Of foreign workers in our field mention must be made in the first place of the veteran scholar Professor K. Sudhoff of Leipzig, who has for many years been producing volume after volume of highly original researches, covering wide stretches in the history of science. His extraordinary fertility and equally great literary generosity lay all other workers in his department under a debt of gratitude impossible to repay. It is gratifying to observe that his venerable colleagues, Professor Eilhard Wiedemann of Erlangen and Professor J. Hirschberg of Berlin, are still prosecuting their researches in Oriental Science and the History of Optics, and that fascicules of the Corpus Medicorum Graecorum and Corpus Medi- corum Latinorum continue to appear, though all too slowly. The recent output by Professor Max Wellmann on the science of classical antiquity has been very remarkable. Another useful work in the department of the History of Science is Professor E. 0. von Lippmann's Entstehung und Ausbreitung der Alchemic

In Austria the activities of the most philosophical of living medical historians, Professor Neuburger, have continued in spite of the terrible conditions through which the city of Vienna has passed and is passing. The first volume of his illuminating History of Medicine was rendered into English by Dr. Ernest Playf air, with the encouragement of Sir William Osier. The appearance of the second volume of this translation was a cherished wish, as it would be a suitable memorial, of that lover of learning.

The xecent output in the History of Science of some of the smaller European States has of late years been truly remarkable, and the world owes to them a number of works of primary value for the subject, elaborately published at vast expense. The decipherment, transcription, translation, and publication of the beautiful Windsor Quaderni d'Anatomia of Leonardo have now been completed by Professors Fonahn, Hopstock and Vangensten, and the work has been published at Christiania. The Societe Hollandaise des Sciences is proceeding with the monumental

X

PREFACE

edition, collected from manuscript sources, of the (Euvres completes of Christiaan Huygens. Denmark has given us the Opera Philo- sophica of Stensen, edited by Dr. Vilhelm Maar, the Opera Omnia of Tycho Brahe, edited by Dr. J. L. E. Dreyer, and the Scientific Papers of H. C. Orsted ; all three are produced by the Carlsberg- fond. Professor Heiberg of Copenhagen continues his series of fine works on Creek science, and his writings are an additional adornment of the Danish. School. The Union Astronomique Internationale, founded at Brussels in 1919, has appointed a Commission de rendition d'ouvrages anciens.

In Italy the history of science has now been placed on a firm academic basis. The work of Professor Antonio Favaro on the physics and mathematics of the seventeenth century and of Professor Piero Giacosa on mediaeval science continues. The new Archivio di Storia della Scienza has completed its first annual volume under the editorship of Professor Aldo Mieli.

In France, since the appearance of Adam and Tannery's edition of the Works of Descartes and the termination by death of the labours of Henri Poincare, the most important publication has probably been the fifth and posthumous volume of Pierre Duhem's very' valuable Le systeme du monde, histoire des doctrines cosmo- logiques de Platon a Copernic. Mention must also be made of the very scholarly work on the Commentaires de la Faculte de Medecine de FUniversite de Paris (1395-1516) by Dr. Ernest Wickersheimer, who has since become librarian of the University of Strassburg.

Nowhere, perhaps, has more general interest been taken in the History of Science than in the United States. Many courses of lectures have been devoted to the subject ; much valuable original work in the department of mathematics has appeared from the pens of Professors L. C. Karpinski and Eugene Smith, in medicine from Colonel Garrison and Dr. E. C. Streeter, and in bibliography from Dr. A. C. Klebs. Among recent American publications are Mr. T. O. Wedel's work, The mediaeval attitude toward astrology, and a useful translation of Choulant's History of Anatomic Illustration, annotated and brought up to date by

PREFACE

xi

Mortimer Frank, whose death at the age of forty-four is a real loss to learning.

Dr. George Sarton has been carrying on at Harvard the labours commenced before the war in Belgium. His journal, I sis, which first appeared in 1913 as a ' Revue consacree a l'histoire et a Forganisation de la science et de la civilisation ', has revived since the peace, and some form of joint publication is projected between this series and Isis. Moreover, in the future, the Studies in the History and Method of Science will appear regularly as an annual volume.

A central institute and library, devoted to the promotion of systematic investigation into the historical documents of science, is greatly needed in this country. Such a foundation would do much to place the subject on its proper academic basis and would rapidly react on the whole system of scientific education. It would help the teacher to present the sciences in their evolutionary relation to each other and to the course of history as a whole. It would especially help the teacher of science to develop his subject as the product of a progressive revelation of the human spirit rather than as a mere description and attempted explanation of the phenomena. We may well look to this new orientation of scientific teaching to counteract the effects of t^e regrettable but real decline in the study of the older ' humanities '.

CHARLES SINGER.

University College, London, February, 1921.

«

CONTENTS

PAGE

I. CHARLES SINGER

Greek Biology and its Relation to the

Rise of Modern Biology ... 1

II. J. L. E. DREYER

Mediaeval Astronomy . . . . .102

III. ROBERT STEELE

Roger Bacon and the State of Science in

the Thirteenth Century . . .121

IV. H. HOPSTOCK

Leonardo as Anatomist. Translated from the

Norwegian by E. A. Fleming . . .151

V. E. T. WITHINGTON

The Asclepiadae and the Priests of Asclepitjs 192

VI. J. J. FAHIE

The Scientific Works of Galileo (1564-1642).

With some account of his life and trial . 206

VII. F. J. COLE

The History of Anatomical Injections . 285

VIII. F. S. MARVIN

Science and the Unity of Mankind . . 344

IX.

F. C. CONYBEARE

Four Armenian Tracts on the Structure

of the Human Body .... 359

xiv

CONTENTS

PAGE

X. CHARLES SINGER

Steps leading to the Invention of the First

Optical Apparatus. .... 385

XI. F. C. S. SCHILLER

Hypothesis ....... 414

XII. J. W. JENKINS ON

Science and Metaphysics .... 447

XIII. E. A. NEWELL ARBER

A Sketch of the History of Palaeobotany 472

XIV. J. M. CHILD

Archimedes' Principle of the Balance, and

some Criticisms upon it 490

XV. ARTHUR PLATT

Aristotle on the Heart . . . .521

APPENDIX TO ARTICLE X 533

INDEX .535

LIST OF PLATES

CREEK BIOLOGY AND ITS RELATION TO THE RISE OF .MODERN BIOLOGY

PLATE FACING PAGE

I. Mosaic from Populonium (Etruria) : probably first century

a.L). (Victoria and Albert Museum) . . Frontispiece 11. {a) Theophrastus : from Villa Albani ; copy (second century a.d. V) of earlier work. (6) Aristotle : from Herculaneum ; probably fourth century B.C. . . -1

III. Late Minoan Gold Cups: from Vaphio, about sixteenth

century B.C. (Athens Museum) .... 5

IV. Aesculapius receives Medical Art from Plato and Chiron ;

Anglo-Saxon work, about 1000 (Cotton Vitellius C. Ill,

fo. 19 r) )- i 6

V. (a) Orobus sp.: MS. Bodley 130, fo. 16 r, written 1120. (b) Betony : early thirteenth century (MS. Ashmole L462, fo. 12 r). (c) TeucriumCliamaedrys : MS. Bodley 130, fo. 1(5 r, written at St. Albans 1120 . . . 8 VI. COTKOC TPAXYC = Sow-thistle : fifth-sixth century

(Julia Anicia MS., fo. 315 r) 12

VII. <t>ACIOAOC Seedling Bean : fifth-sixth century (Julia

Anicia MS., fo. 370 v) 13

VIII. (a) Fraya --Blackberry, (b) Hyoscyamus. (c) Phinomia = I'aeori) : Apuleius, .sixth eentury (Leyden MS. Viw. Lat. Q. 9) . . . . . .16

IX. (a) xaM'/A'/ = Bugle '! anavOos Acanthus. (6) u\ki^lov = Anchusa officinalis '! : Nicander, ninth century (Paris, Bibl. nat. sup. gree 247, fos. 20 f and 16 v) . . 32 X. Male' and 'Female' Mandrakes: Dioscorides, ninth century (Paris, Bibl. nat. MS. grec 2179, fos. 104 r and

105 r) 33

XI. Frontispiece of Book XII (' On Birds ') of Le Livre des Proprietez de Choses, 1482 (Brit. Mus. MS. Reg. 15 E. in,

fo. 11 r) 38

XII. Paintings by Edward Tyson, made in 1687 : (a) Dissec- tion of Lophius. (b) Stomach of Gazelle (MS. at the Royal College of Physicians, London, pp. 41 and 92) . 39 XIII. (a) Female argonaut (from H. de Lacaze-Duthiers, Archives de Zoologie experimentale, 1892). (6) Male argonaut (from Heinriek Muller, Zeitschrift fiir wissenschaftliche Zoologie, 1853) 42

2391 b

xvi

LIST OF PLATES

PLATE FACING PAGE

XIV. Hectocotylization (from J. B. Verany, 1851) ... 43 XV. Hyoscyamus niger : (a) Written at St. Albans 1120 (MS.

Bodley 130, fo. 37 r). (6) Written in England early thirteenth century (MS. Sloane 1975, fo. 15 r) . . 50

XVI. (a) Wagbrcede = Way broad = Meadow Plantain, (b) Henne- belle = Henbane = Hyoscyamus reticulatus, a Mediter- ranean species : Anglo-Saxon work, about 1000 (Cotton Vitellius C. Ill, fos. 21 v and 23 v) . . 54 XVII. (a) Vetonica =Betony. (b) Verminacia (columbar is) = Ver- bena officinalis : Apuleius, tenth century, French work (Paris, Bibl. nat. MS. lat. 6862, fos. 20 v and 26 v) . 70 XVIII. (a) OACIOAOC, Seedling Bean. (6) TOrrYAH, Turnip: Dioscorides, tenth century (Phillipps MS., now in the Pierpont Morgan Library, New York) ... 74

XIX. (a) Hyoscyamus : English, about 1200 (MS. Harley 1585, fo. 19 v). (b) Plantain : Italian, about 1450 (Brit. Mus. MS. Add. 17063, fo. 4r). (c) Dracunculus : English, about 1200 (MS. Harley 1585, fo. 22 v) . .75

XX. (a) Aristolochia. (b) Heliotropia = Forget-me-not. (c) Ga- millea = Teasel : Apuleius, sixth century (Leyden MS. Voss Lat. Q. 9) . . . ... . 78

XXI. Dracontea = Dracunculus vulgaris, a Mediterranean species :

Apuleius, sixth century (Leyden MS. Voss Lat. Q. 9) 79 XXII. Three figures of Dracontea = Dracunculus vulgaris: (a) From O. Brunfels, Herbarum Vivae Icones. (b) German work of end of twelfth century (MS. Harley 4986, fo. 7 v). (c) Apuleius, printed at Rome, 1483 . . 82

XXIII. (a) Crisocantus =Ifig =Ivy, flowering form, (b) Cysson =

Edera=Yvye=Ivy, climbing form (MS. Bodley 130,

fo. 55 r ; written in St. Albans 1120) ... 83

XXIV. (a) Centaur holding Centaury. (6) Mercury brings ' Elec-

tropion ' to Homer : English, early thirteenth century (MS. Ashmole 1462, fos. 23 r and 26 r) . .84 XXV. Figures of Herb Betony from English MSS. : (a) Early thirteenth century (Sloane 1975, fo. 10 v). (b) About 1000 (Cotton Vitellius C. Ill, fo. 20 r). (c) About 1200 (Harley 1585, fo. 14 r) 96

LEONARDO AS ANATOMIST

XXVI. (a) Leonardo da Vinci : from a crayon portrait by himself at the Royal Library, Turin, (b) Foetus in utero and relations of membranes to uterine wall (Quaderni V, fo. 8 r) . 151

LIST OF PLATES

xvii

PLATE FACING PAGE

XXVII. (a) General structure of uterus and sources of its blood supply male organs (Quaderni III, fo. 1 v). (b) Topo- graphical anatomy of neck and shoulder in a thin, aged individual (Quaderni V, fo. 18 r) . . . 158 XXVIII. Bones of lower limb to which wires are fitted to illustrate

lines of muscular traction (Quaderni V, fo. 4 r) . . 160 XXIX. (a) Ventricles and layers of head and eye in section (Quaderni V, fo. 6 v.) (b) Casts of cerebral ventricles (Quaderni V, fo. 7 r) . . . . . .164

XXX. (a) Dissection of triangles of neck (Quaderni V, fo. 16 r).

(b) Dissection of foot ; nails replaced by claws (Qua- derniV,io. 11 r) . . . . . . 166

XXXI. (a) Dissection of coronary vessels (Quaderni II, fo. 3 v.)

(b) Dissection of bronchi and bronchial vessels (Qua- derni II, fo. 1 r) . . . . . . 168

XXXII. (a) The semilunar valves (Quaderni II, fo. 9 v). (b) Glass casts with valves to illustrate action of semilunar valves. Diagrams of semilunar valves (Quaderni IV, fo. 11 v) 170

XXXIII. (a) Details of cardiac anatomy (Quaderni V, fo. 14 r). (b)

Blood-vessels in inguinal region (Quaderni IV, fo. 8 r). 176

XXXIV. (a) Right ventricle, pulmonary artery and musculi papil-

lares (Quaderni II, fo. 12 r). (b) Ventricles, right auricle, and great vessels (Quaderni II, fo. 14 r) . 178 XXXV. (a) The ' Vessel-tree ' (Quaderni V, fo. 1 r). (b) Surface ana- tomy: lowerlimbsof man andhor se (QuaderniV ,io. 22 r) 180 XXXVI. (a) Heart, great vessels, bronchi, &c. (Quaderni III, fo. 10 v). (b) The intraventricular muscle band (Qua- derni IV, fo. 13 r) 186

XXXVII. (a) Proportions of trunk (Quaderni VI, fo. 8 r). (b) Pro- portions of head (Quaderni VI, fo. 1 r) . . .190

THE ASCLEPIADAE AND THE PRIESTS OF ASCLEPIUS

XXXVIII. (a) Hippocrates : second or third century B.C. (British Museum). (b) Aesculapius : fourth century B.C. (British Museum) .......

192

THE SCIENTIFIC WORKS OF GALILEO

XXXIX. Galileo Galilei : from a portrait in the Bodleian brought

from Florence in 1661 206

XL. (a) Galileo's Lodestone and Military Compass, (b) Gali- leo's Telescopes (Galileo Museum at Florence) . . 226 XLI. Hall of the Galileo Museum in Florence . , ,, 276

xviii

LIST OF PLATES

THE HISTORY OF ANATOMICAL INJECTIONS

PLATE FACING PAGE

XLII. Reinier de Graaf : from the first edition of the De Usu

Siphonis, 1668 ....... 292

XLIII. (a) Frederik Ruysch : from the first edition of his collected works, 1721. (6) Alexander Monro, primus : from his collected works, 1781 . . . . . . 308

XLIV. (a) The coronary vessels injected by Ruysch, 1704. (b) The spleen of the ox injected with wax by William Stukeley,

1723 . . .324

XLV. (a) Testis injected with mercury from the vas deferens by Albrecht von Haller, 1745. (6) Micro-injection of the mucous membrane by Johann Nathanael Lieberkiihn, 1745 328

XLVI. General scheme of the lymphatics of the human body based on mercury injections by William Cumberland Cruikshank and his pupils, 1786 . . . . 336 XL VII. Mercury injection of the lymphatics of the human colon

and abdomen by Paolo Mascagni, 1787 . . . 340

A SKETCH OF THE HISTORY OF PALAEOBOTANY

XLVIII. Fossil plants : Fig. 1. Cycadeoidea etrusca. Fig. 2. Litho- pteris ; Lithosmunda ; Liihosmunda minor ; Tricho- manes ......... 472

XLIX. One of the original Cabinets belonging to John Woodward,

the geologist . . . . . . . .474

L. Fossil plants. Fig. 4. From Ure's History of Rutherglen and East-Kilbride. Fig. 5. Impression of plants from a coal-pit in Yorkshire. Fig. 6. Palmacites. Fig. 7. Phytolithus Filicites (striatus) = Alethopteris lonchitica (Schl.). Fig. 8. Phytolithus Plantites (verrucosus) = Stigmaria ficoides (Brongn.) ..... 476

LI. Fossil plants : Fig. 9. Examples from Parkinson's Organic Remains of a Former World (1804). Fig. 10. Phyto- lithus tessellatus =8igillaria tessellata (Steinh.) ; Phyto- lithus notatus =Sigillaria notata (Steinh.) . . . 478 LII. Fossil plants : Fig. 11. Neuropteris grangeri, Brongn. ;

Neuropteris flexuosa, Sternb. Fig. 12. Filicites Os- mundae = Neuropteris Osmundae (Artis) . . . 482 LIII. Fossil plants : Fig. 13. Trigonocarpum olivaeforme ;

T. noggerathi. Fig. 14. Section of ' petrified conifera '. Fig. 15. Sections of petrified tissues . . . . 484

LIV. Portrait of William Crawford Williamson , , . 486

LIST OF PLATES

xix

PLATE FACING PAGE

LV. (a) Fossil plants : Fig. 17. Calamostachys Binneyana, from a drawing by W. C. Williamson of the transverse section of the cone ...... 488

LV. (6) Hornets drawn by Thomas Mouffet before 1589 (MS.

Sloane 4014, fo. 82 r). See p. 51 . . . . 488

ILLUSTRATIONS IN TEXT

GREEK BIOLOGY AND ITS RELATION TO THE RISE OF MODERN BIOLOGY

EIGURE PAGE

1. Grampus and newly -born young (from Pierre Belon, Histoire

naturelle des estranges poissons, 1551) ..... 18

2. The uterus of the porpoise (from Pierre Belon) . . . .19

3. The skeleton of a man and of a bird compared (from Pierre Belon,

L'histoire de la nature des oyseaux) ..... 20

4. The order of living things, put together from the descriptions

of Aristotle . . . . . . . . .21

5. The young chick (from Fabricius ab Aquapendente, De formatione

ovi et pulli, 1604) ........ 25

6. (a) Ovary of a woman ; (b) ovary of a cow ; (c) follicle and ovum

of a sheep (from Regnier de Graaf's De mulierum organis generationi inservientibus, 1672) . . . . . .27

7. Development of the rabbit's ovum (from Regnier de Graaf) . 28

8. (a) Female Galeus laevis opened to show the gravid uterus ;

(b) a uterus opened exhibiting three foetuses ; (c) a foetus removed from the uterus (from Fabricius ab Aquapendente, De Formato Foetu, 1604) 30

9. Galeus laevis, from Rondelet's De piscibus marinis, 1554 . . 32

10. Relation of yolk sac to umbilical cord and intestine (after Stensen's

diagram in Ova viviparorum spectantes observationes, 1675) . 33

1 1 . Embryos of two species of Mustelus (from Johannes Miiller, Ueber

den glatten Hai des Aristoteles, 1842) ..... 35

12. Embryo of Carcharias with umbilical cord and placenta (from

Johannes Miiller) . . . . ... . .36

13. Dissection of umbilical structures of a foetal Carcharias, schematic-

ally represented (modified from Johannes Miiller) . . .36

14. A part of the uterus of Mustela laevis, showing two placental

attachments (from Johannes Miiller) . . . . .36

15. Diagrammatic section of placenta of Mustelus laevis (modified

from Johannes Miiller) . . . . . 37

16. The four chambers of the stomach of a lamb (from Marco Aurelio

Severino, Zootomia Dernocritea, 1645) , . 39

XX

ILLUSTRATIONS IN TEXT

FIGURE PAGE

17. The four-chambered stomach of a sheep (after Nehemiah Grew,

The Comparative Anatomy of the Stomach and Guts Begun, 1681) 40

18. The paper nautilus, Argonauta Argo (from Belon's Histoire naturelle

des estranges poissons, 1551) . . . . 43

19. 20. Drawing of the ' male argonaut ' (after Albrecht von Kolliker) 44

21. Dissection of the ' male argonaut ' (after Kolliker) ... 45

22. Congress of Octopus vulgaris (as observed in a tank by E. Raco-

vitza) .......... 46

23. The frog-fish (from Pierre Belon's De aquatilibus, 1553) . . 48

24. The electric organ of the torpedo . . . . . .49

25. Enlarged figures of the bee (from Francesco Stelluti's Persia

tradotto, 1630) 53

26. Herbalists at work on a mountain (from a facsimile in Piero

Giacosa's Magistri Salernitani, 1901) ..... 59

27. Dioscorides writing while Intelligence holds the mandrake for the

artist to copy (restored from the Julia Anicia MS., about a.d. 512) 61

28. Discovery presents a mandrake to the physician Dioscorides

(restored from the Julia Anicia MS.) ..... 62

29. The genealogy of the earliest manuscript of Dioscorides . . 63

30. ' Chamaepitys ' (from a fragment of an eighth-century Greek Her-

barium, Bodl. E. 19) 65

31. Outlines of the mandrake and its gatherers (traced from a twelfth-

century English Herbarium in the British Museum and a con- temporary Italian Herbarium) . . . . . .71

32. The plantain (from a thirteenth-century Herbarium, Sloane 1975,

fo. 12 v) . . . . 72

33. The plantain (from the Herbarius latinus, 1484) ... 72

34. Wall-flower with dodder. 35. Yellow flag. (From the German

version of the Hortus Sanitatis, 1485) ..... 73

36. The plantain (from Lignamine's Apuleius, 1483) ... 75

37. Young dracunculus ; seedling beans : seedlings from the ' Syrian

Garden ' of Tethmosis III (about 1500 b,c.) at Karnak . . 85

38. Germination of seeds (from Nathaniel Highmore's History of

Generation, 1651) ........ 87

39. 40. Supernatural figures from Nineveh holding male inflorescence

of date palm (from Layard) ...... 88

41. Assur-nasir-pal (about 885-860 B.C.), with winged attendants

holding male inflorescence of date palm, performing ceremony

of fertilization (from a bas-relief now in the British Museum) . 89

42. The germination of wheat (from Malpighi, Anatome plantarum,

1676) 90

43. The germination of the bean (from Malpighi) . . . 91

ILLUSTRATIONS IN TEXT

xxi

figure MEDIAEVAL ASTRONOMY page

1. Diagram of the three orbits of Sol, Venus, and Mercury (from

a manuscript of the fourteenth century) . . . .107

2. Diagram of the Earth and Spheres (from Dreyer, History of the

Planetary Systems) . . . . . . . .115

LEONARDO AS ANATOMIST

1. Leonardo's use of serial sections . . . . . .162

2. An experiment of Leonardo on the heart ..... 179

THE SCIENTIFIC WORKS OF GALILEO

1-3. Diagrams of the Pulsilogia (from Sancto Santorio, Methodus

Vitandorum Errorum in Arte Medica, 1602) .... 209

4. Diagram illustrating the hydrostatic balance . . . .212

5. Galileo's thermometer . . . . . . . 220

6. Diagram to illustrate the proportions of Galileo's first telescopes . 228

7. Early drawings of Saturn (from the Sy sterna Saturnum) . . 238

8. Title-page of Sidereus Nuncius, 1610 ..... 241

9. The moon as seen by Galileo, 1609-10 (from Sidereus Nuncius) . 245

10. Title-page of II Saggiatore, 1623 271

11. Title-page of Discorsi e Dimostrazioni Matematiche, 1638 . .271

12. Facsimile of design for a pendulum clock (drawn by Vincenzio Galilei

from his father's dictation) ....... 282

THE HISTORY OF ANATOMICAL INJECTIONS

1. Engraved title of the first edition of De Graaf's De Usu Siphonis,

1668 298

2. De Graaf's injection syringe and accessories, 1668 . . 299

3. Uterus injected with red wax by Jan Swammerdam, 1671 . . 302

4. Swammerdam's method of injecting the small vessels of insects . 303

5. Periosteum of the auditory ossicles injected by Ruysch, 1697 . 305

6. Injection appliances of Caspar Bartholin, 1679 .... 310

7. The lymphatics of the urogenital organs injected with mercury

by Anthony Nuck, 1691 312

8. Triple injection of the arteries, veins, and lacteals of the mesentery

of the turtle by William Hewson, 1769 . . . .337

9. Apparatus designed by Hercule Eugene Straus-Durckheim, 1843 342

STEPS LEADING TO THE INVENTION OF THE FIRST OPTICAL APPARATUS

1. The structure of the eye, reconstructed from the descriptions of

Rufus of Ephesus (first century c.E.) ..... 389

2. The structure of the eye, after Alhazen ..... 392

xxii

ILLUSTRATIONS IN TEXT

FIGURE : PAGE

3. Avicenna's diagram to explain the less apparent size of distant

object 393

4. Diagram of Roger Bacon to illustrate optics of lens . . . 395

5. Diagram of Roger Bacon to illustrate optics of lens . . . 396

6. Diagram of Roger Bacon to illustrate optics of burning-glass . 397

7. The action of spectacle lenses, according to Leonardo . .401

8. The structure of the eye, according to Leonardo . . . 402

9. Diagram of the eye, from Leonardo, showing the sphera crystalline, 403

10. The action of a pin-hole camera, according to Leonardo . . 403

11. A camera obscura, according to Leonardo .... 404

A SKETCH OF THE HISTORY OF PALAEOBOTANY

1. Edward Llhuyd (from an initial vignette in the Register of Bene- factors, Ashmolean Museum, 1708) ..... 475

GREEK BIOLOGY AND ITS RELATION TO THE RISE OF MODERN BIOLOGY

By Charles Singer

There is an extreme affecting of two' extremities : the one antiquity the other novelty ; wherein it seemeth the children of time do take after the nature and malice of the father. For as he devoureth his children, so one of them seeketh to devour and suppress the other; while antiquity envieth there should be new additions and novelty cannot be content to add but it must deface : surely the advice of the prophet is the true direction in this matter, State super vias antiquas, et videte quaenam sit via recta et bona et ambulate in ea. Antiquity deserveth that reverence that men should make a stand thereupon and discover what is the best way but when the discovery is ivell taken, then to make progression. And to speak truly Antiquitas saeculi iuventus mundi. These times are the ancient times, when the world is ancient, and not those which we account ancient ordine retrogrado, by a comptitation backward from ourselves.— Bacon's Advancement of Learning, v. 1.

PAGE

I. The Course of Ancient and of

Modern Science compared . 1

II. The Record of Ancient and the Record of Modern Biology 7

III. The Bases of the Aristotelian Biological System . (a) Classification . (6) Phylogeny .... (c) Ontogeny ....

IV.

Some Aristotelian Zoological Observations and their Modern counterparts . {a) The Placental Shark .

(b) The Ruminant Stomach

(c) The Generative Pro- cesses of Cephalopods .

(d) Habits of Animals . . i. Fishing-frog and Tor- pedo

ii. Bees

13 13 20 22

29 29 38

39 46

46 50

The General Course of Botani- cal Knowledge .

(a) Botany among the Greeks ....

(6) Botany in the West from the sixth to the twelfth century (the Dark Ages) ....

(c) Botany in the West from the twelfth to the fifteenth century (the Middle Ages) . .

PAGE

56

56

67

73

VI. The Botanical Results of Theo- phrastus compared with those of Early Modern Botanists (a) Nomenclature and classification of Plants . (6) Generation and develop- ment of Plants . .

(c) Form and structure of Plants .... 92

(d) Habits and Distribu- tion of Plants ... 95

79 79

83

I. The Course of Ancient and of Modern Science compared In the pages which follow we discuss certain elements in the exact, classified and consciously accumulated knowledge of

by the Greeks. This biological knowledge and the mode in which it was attained are well suited to the

2

GREEK BIOLOGY AND ITS RELATION TO

illustration of Greek scientific method, for the actual achieve- ments of the Greek mind were no less remarkable and perhaps more characteristic in Biology than in other departments of physical science. As a preliminary to the discussion we may briefly consider the means available for forming an estimate of Greek science as a whole, and in doing this we shall inevitably compare and contrast the science of antiquity with that of our own time.

Ever since man has been man, he has had some control over nature through his power to adapt his instruments to make her serve his will, and it is possible to define science in terms of this power and of the knowledge that lies at the back of it. But the conscious formulation of theories to explain natural phenomena, and the conscious collection and record of data as a basis of these theories, come as a far later phenomenon in human development. It is this conscious and more sophisticated process to which, for our present purpose, we shall give the title science, and science so interpreted cannot be traced with certainty earlier than the speculations of the Ionian philosophers of the sixth century B.C. Greek science thus established continued its course of positive achievement until the second or third century of the Christian era. Then, from causes which we need not here discuss, it ceased to be original, having run a course of some eight hundred years.

Our effective record begins with the Hippocratic collection. Some elements in this are at least as early as the sixth century B.C., and it is therefore impossible that these earliest portions should be the work of Hippocrates himself who died in the first half of the fourth century. Nevertheless Hippocrates is almost certainly the first scientific writer of whom we have substantial remains. The latest original Greek scientific works were perhaps those of Galen and Ptolemy of the end of the second century of the Christian era, or, if we should include mathematics in our scheme, we may carry the period forward to Diophantus of the third or even to Theon of Alexandria of the fourth century.1

We may compare this course with the science of our own time. For a thousand years and more after the downfall of Greek science, the powers of observation and the scientific imagination of man- kind seemed to sleep, a sleep broken only by disorderly dreams which either fitfully recapitulated the past, or conjured up what never was and never will be. At length, however, Man awoke to

1 Or perhaps to Theon's daughter Hypatia, who survived to the second decade of the fifth century and is said to have made original mathematical investigations.

THE RISE OF MODERN BIOLOGY 3

look around and to examine the world into which he had been born During the long twilight of a new dawn he had been stirring in his slumber, but the year 1543 gave full proof that the night was over and he was at last awake. In that year appeared the two works which mark the real sunrise of modern science, the Be revolutionibus orUum celestium of the Pole, Nicolaus Copernicus, and the Be fabrica corporis humani of the Belgian, Andreas Vesalius. These two were the first great modern natural historians of the Universe and of Man, of the Macrocosm and the Microcosm and if any single year be selected, 1543 has perhaps a better claim than any other to be regarded as the birth year of modern science though we shall see good reason for assigning its conception to a much earlier period.

Beginning from 1543 we are thus near the end of the fourth century of modern science, and are now at about the middle of the total period of time that Greek science had to run. During these four hundred years a vast and ever-growing mass of original investigation has been recorded, and as time has gone on the stream has grown ever broader and fuller. Some idea of its enormous and unreadable bulk may be gained by a glance at the International Catalogue of Scientific Literature1 which, while giving the titles alone of original articles, consists each year of seventeen closely printed volumes. The vast intellectual effort which this enormous output implies has gradually transformed our mode of Me, our attitude to the world around us, and even our hearts and minds.

Now if we seek to compare this extraordinary movement and its results with its prototype of antiquity, we encounter diffi- culties at the very outset. These difficulties of comparison lie not so much m the relative scantiness of the Greek record— that m itself might be an advantage for our purpose-but rather in the character of that record. The differences in the mode of recording ancient and modern science become explicable when we consider certain differences in the history of the two systems, and to their history we therefore turn.

The earHest science, in the sense that we are using the word, arose in Asia Minor on the confines of the great Eastern * Published for the International Council by the Royal Society of London First annual 1Ssue 1902, last annual issue (with sequence disturbed by the k 2'. vention of the war) 1914-16. It is significant that the number of bioW cal papers recorded in this enormous index is double that of the phyBtalTnd mathematical combined. Physical and

B 2

4 GREEK BIOLOGY AND ITS RELATION TO

civilizations. In the social systems of the valleys of the Euphrates, Tigris, and Nile there had accumulated a great mass of observations, and upon them rough generalizations had been erected. These generalizations seem in the main to have been an evolutionary product of the ' social consciousness ', rather than the definite fruit of individual minds, and it is thus characteristic of the science of the ancient East that its products are anonymous. From all the centuries of intellectual activity of the civilizations of Babylon and of Egypt, hardly even the name of a scientific discoverer has come down to us. It was into a great impersonal heritage that the philosophers of the Ionian cities were fortunate enough to enter ; with it as a basis they began to engage upon that active process of cosmical speculation that developed as Greek philosophy.

As time went on, knowledge accumulated, separate sciences or departments of knowledge were gradually differentiated and, in the course of centuries, these became more and more distinct from the parent stock of philosophy. Yet it is peculiar to Greek scientific thought that it never loses direct touch with the philo- sophic stem from which it sprang. Whether we look to such early traces of the scientific spirit as that of the sixth century B.C., when Pythagoras was contriving his first formulated conceptions of the relations of number to form, or whether we consider the last vitally original works of Greek science in the second century of the Christian era, when Galen and Ptolemy were giving forth those ideas on the structure of man and of the world that were to dominate Western thought for a millennium and a half, from end to end Greek science constantly betrays its descent from Greek philosophy.

Far different is the ancestry of modern science. The origin of modern science will be sought in vain in the lucubrations of the philosophers, who played but a subordinate part in the revival of letters. Copernicus and Vesalius were dead before the great philosophers of modern science, Francis Bacon and Rene Descartes, had been born. Nor is it a more fruitful task to attempt, as many have done, to draw a picture of our scientific system as but a rebirth of the wisdom of ancient Greece, for we must then seek its origin in the writings of the men who were the agents of that rebirth. Yet from them we get but little light. Science, as we understand the term to-day, was far from the minds of the men who made the New Learning. The scholars of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries showed scant sympathy for the investigation of Nature

4

PLATE III

LATE MINOAN GOLD CUPS. ATHENS MUSEUM

From VAPHIO about X V 1 1 h cent. b. c.

THE RISE OF MODERN BIOLOGY

5

and the humanistic period dominated by them was, on the whole, backward or at best but retrospective in its scientific conceptions. Their thoughts were rather with the great past of literature and of art, which they sought to bring back to life.

It is certainly true that there were a few philosophical writers of the later part of this period in whom can be traced some con- sciousness of the value of the experimental method : Nicholas of Cusa (1401-64), Pomponazzi (1462-1525), Fracastor (1478 ?- 1553) stand here to witness. But it is far from clear that their ideas on the mode of extension of natural knowledge were related to the re-discovery of the Greek texts and the diffusion of know- ledge of the Greek language. These men, at best, were few and exceptional, and they come mainly in the late and academic period of the learned revival ; their place is rather among the founders of modern science and they do not naturally fall into the series of the scholars of the classical Renaissance. It may, indeed, be claimed that the astronomical work of Regiomontanus (1436-76) and Purbach (1423-61) was dependent on their salvage of the text of Ptolemy.1 But their recovery of the Greek original was the result of their scientific zeal and an incident in their scientific researches ; it did not provide the primary stimulus for those researches.

If we turn to the revival of biological studies, we are encountered with the same phenomenon of dissociation from the learned revival of the Greek texts. The first modern records of the close scientific observation of plants or animals impinge on the intellectual orbit of the age either too early or too late to be explained as attracted thither by the new learning. Effective